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Author Photo Tagamanila Rating: 0
May 12 2019, 7:30am CST ~ 2 mos., 5 days ago. 
@banyaga02
 
> * ANO
 
> Ano ito? - question marker
 
Aanuhin mo ito? = What will you do with this? - verb - “Ano” is “what”, but it can be a root word and made into a verb with an appropriate affix. “Anuhin” (ano + (h)in) is a verb form of “ano” and it means “to do something on something”.
 
Bakit ka nangaANO di naman kita inaANO? = Why are you doing IT (whatever it is) to me when I am not doing IT (whatever it is) to you? - verb - Prefix is “mang” for “nangaANO”. “Mang-ano” = to do something to someone. “Inaano” is the present tense of “anuhin”.
 
MaANO naman ngayon - not sure if this adjective or verb - May either be an adjective or a verb depending on how it is used or what “ano” actually represents. “Maano” is like saying “whatchamacallit”.
 
Ano = rain; maANO = rainy - adjective
MaANÓ naman ngayon. = This time though it is RAINY.
 
Ano = meet an accident; maANO = to meet an accident - verb
Mag-ingat ka at baka máANO ka sa daan. = Be careful as you might meet an accident on your way.
 
 
> * SINO
 
Sino ito? - question marker - "Sino" may also be a root word.
 
Wala akong siniSINO - verb? No, noun. “Sino-sino” = unknown or unnamed persons.
 
Sino-sino ang kasama mo? = Who were/are/will be the people with you?
 
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Author Photo Pusokong Rating: 0
May 13 2019, 11:16am CST ~ 2 mos., 4 days ago. 
@Tagamanila Ok. I see what you mean.
 
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Author Photo Pusokong Rating: 0
May 13 2019, 11:38am CST ~ 2 mos., 4 days ago. 
@Tagamanila Wow, I didn't understand everything,but I gleaned a few golden nuggets from that. I'll be coming to this one for a while. A lot of good information here.☝️
 
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Author Photo banyaga02 Rating: 0
May 14 2019, 8:32am CST ~ 2 mos., 3 days ago. 
@Tagamanila
Thank you very much for correcting all my mistakes and I'm sorry to ask these grammar questions again because some parts of the topic are still not clear to me. Please correct whatever mistakes I made in these grammar questions.
 
1. If "makagawa" is in infinitive form, that means it still a verb, but in a bare form of a verb because it is not inflected for any number, aspect, etc. Therefore, "makagawa" doesn't need a verb but a special type of verb called an auxilliary verb/helping verb or a pseudo verb in Tagalog.
 
2. Sana makagawa AKO nito.
Makagawa sana AKO nito.
Makagawa AKO nito...sana
 
"sana" could also act as a verb ( I hope...) - but in this sentence, I think it functions as an adverb not as a verb since the doer AKO already exists in the sentence.
However, with this new example sentence I found online, the word AKO doesn't exist.
 
Example:
 
SANA hindi ka masyadong maabala.
I HOPE this will not inconvenience(x) bother you too much.
 
Looking at the English translation, it seems that AKO is already embedded in SANA. In my opinion, SANA still functions as an adverb (hopefully) not as a verb (I hope). It acts like a verb because we try to analyse the function of "sana" based on the result of translation in English and not based on source/original text.
 
3. With baka, pwede, maaari and sana. I thought they are all adverbs. I didn't know they are also versatile word in Tagalog.
 
* Pwede and maaari are also pseudo verbs
* the root word "baka" isn't only a noun and an adverb. It is also a verb - makiBAKA/nakikiBAKA.
* sana- adjective meaning devastated; completely destroyed
(from tagalog.pinoydiction ary.com/search?q=San a)
 
4. ma adjective can also function as an adverb. - Yes, but “beautiful” becomes “beautifully” as an adverb.
 
-Yes, but that rule applies only to English and not in Tagalog. In English, adding suffix - LY can make the adjective "beautiful" an adverb. But in Tagalog the adjective "maganda" is still "maganda" even if it turned into adverb (no changes). The only way I can identify if it's an adjective or an adverb is to check if ma- adjective is modifying a noun or a verb and know its contextual meaning/definition in a sentence.
 
Example:
 
Adjective
Kung gusto mong magbawas ng timbang, kumain ka ng MAAGAng hapunan/MAAGA na hapunan.
 
Eat (an)EARLY dinner if you want to lose weight
Early - functions as an adjective here.
 
Adverb
Kung gusto mong magbawas ng timbang, kumain ka ng hapunan nang MAAGA.
 
Eat dinner EARLY if you want to lose weight.
Early - functions as an adverb.
 
In these examples, both "early" and "maaga" almost work the same. They are both used as adjective and adverb (no changes) except in Tagalog, you have to add the linker na/ng if the adjective is in prenominal placement.
 
5. I think sino-sino and sinisino are not the same though they both have the same root word SINO.
 
Sino - question marker for singular
Sino ang kaibigan mo?
 
Sino-sino - question marker for plural
Sino-sino ang mga kaibigan mo?
 
But could also function as a noun,
 
Kung sino-sino lang ang pinapapasok mo sa bahay.
 
***
Sinisino/sisinuhin - to spare no one ( this is the English translation I found online)
 
Walang sasantuhin, walang sisinuhin
 
Enrile: Ako, wala akong sinisino ngayon. Ang pinagtatanggol ko ang bayan.
 
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Author Photo Tagamanila Rating: 0
May 14 2019, 11:32pm CST ~ 2 mos., 2 days ago. 
@banyaga02
 
It might help you to avoid getting confused with the Filipino language if you’d keep the following in mind:
 
1. A Tagalog/Filipino word can have different meanings. The type of stress used and where the stress is placed can make a world of difference in meaning. A root word may be a noun, but if you will alter the stress or add an affix, it may already become another part of speech. Do not simply rely on the spelling of a root word as it can be misleading.
 
2. The explanations we give here are intended for native English speakers who are trying to learn Filipino. We, therefore, have to relate the Filipino words/phrases/sentences/grammar to their equivalents in English for them to be understood. (For example, the concepts of subject- or object-focus is not something we even consider or think of at all when we form our Filipino sentences. We choose the verbs automatically. Yet, we have to use those terms and concepts for the learners to understand the use of those verbs.) To approach the understanding of Filipino from the vantage point of English grammar may not always be helpful because the reverse may not always hold true. Consider the English explanations as only the tool to understand the Filipino sentences. Do not be misled to thinking that English grammar and Filipino grammar are the same.
 
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Author Photo Tagamanila Rating: 0
May 14 2019, 11:36pm CST ~ 2 mos., 2 days ago. 
@banyaga02
 
>>1. If "makagawa" is in infinitive form, that means it still a verb, but in a bare
>>form of a verb because it is not inflected for any number, aspect, etc. Therefore,
>>"makagawa" doesn't need a verb but a special type of verb called an auxilliary
>>verb/helping verb or a pseudo verb in Tagalog.
 
An auxiliary verb is a verb.
 
Gigising ako nang maaga bukas para makagawa ako nito. = I will wake up early tomorrow so that I can make something like this. - “So that” there not an auxiliary verb but a conjunction that links the dependent clause to the independent clause that has a normal verb.
 
 
>>2. Sana makagawa AKO nito.
 
>>"sana" could also act as a verb ( I hope...) - but in this sentence, I think it
>>functions as an adverb not as a verb since the doer AKO already exists in the
>>sentence.
 
Sana makagawa AKO nito. = I hope I can make something like this. = Hopefully, I can make something like this.
 
I used an independent clause instead of an adverb in a previous example because that might be the more common way of dealing with a dependent clause. Both the dependent and the independent clauses may have a subject/actor and a verb. The only difference is that a dependent clause cannot stand alone. “Makagawa ako nito” is a dependent clause, “ako” is the actor. “Sana” may be translated as the independent clause “I hope” that has an actor or the adverb “hopefully”.
 
However, with this new example sentence I found online, the word AKO doesn't exist.
 
“Ako” doesn’t exist because “ako” = “I”. In the new example that you found online, “ka” = “you”.
 
>>Example:
 
>>SANA hindi KA masyadong maabala.
I HOPE this will not inconvenience(x) bother you too much. = HOPEFULLY this will not inconvenience YOU too much.
 
SANA hindi AKO masyadong maabala.
I HOPE this will not inconvenience ME too much. = HOPEFULLY this will not inconvenience ME too much.
 
Using “I hope” or “hopefully” has nothing to do with the actor being “ako” or “ikaw/ka”.
 
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Author Photo Tagamanila Rating: 0
May 14 2019, 11:38pm CST ~ 2 mos., 2 days ago. 
@banyaga02
 
 
>>* Pwede and maaari are also pseudo verbs
- If a linguists calls them that in English, then so be it. To Filipinos, it will just mean the “actor + can/could/may/might”.
 
>>* the root word "baka" isn't only a noun and an adverb. It is also a verb -
>> makiBAKA/nakikiBAKA.
 
“Baká” is “maybe”. “Baka” as a noun is “cow”, but it is pronounced differently. Any root word may be made into a verb with an appropriate affix, i.e., as long as the resulting verb will make sense. The “baka” in “makibaka” is from the “cow” and not the “maybe” root word. "Makibaka" can mean either “to participate in an activity involving cattle (e.g., cattle wrangling)” or “to join a group action, struggle”.

>>* sana- adjective meaning devastated; completely destroyed
>>(from tagalog.pinoydiction ary.com/search?q=San a)
 
I have never encountered “sana” as an adjective meaning “devastated”. Maybe it’s a regional term or an old word no longer in use. I looked it up in a dictionary and it is pronounced as “sanâ”. We are talking about “sana” (I hope; hopefully).
 
>>4. ma adjective can also function as an adverb. - Yes, but “beautiful” becomes
>>“beautifully” as an adverb.
 
>>-Yes, but that rule applies only to English and not in Tagalog.
- And yes, because I was explaining it in English.
 
 
>>In these examples, both "early" and "maaga" almost work the same. They are
>>both used as adjective and adverb (no changes) except in Tagalog, you have
>>to add the linker na/ng if the adjective is in prenominal placement.
 
Of course, in English it works if you’d use a word like “early” because it is one of those words that may be used either as an adjective or an adverb. Try using the adjective “cold”, for example, and you will see that the comparison is no longer possible.
 
“Maganda” comes out as “beautiful” (adjective) and “beautifully” (adverb) because I was explaining the Tagalog sentence in English. We cannot use the argument from the point of view of English to now expect a Tagalog word to change in form because they do in English. Tagalog adverbs just happen to be “formed” in a different way.
 
The difference between “maaga NA/maagang hapunan” or “hapunan NA/hapunang maaga”, where “maaga” is an adjective (early) modifying a noun (dinner) and “kumain ka ng hapunan NANG maaga” is that the first one uses “NA” and the second one uses “NANG”. “Na” links the adjective modifier “maaga” to the noun “hapunan”. “Nang” links the modifier “maaga” to the verb “kumain” (eat). A modifier of a noun is an adjective while a modifier of a verb is an adverb. “Nang” changes “maaga” to an adverb.

Bulaklak NA maganda/MagandaNG bulaklak ang rosas. = The rose is a beautiful flower.
Ayusin natin ang mga bulaklak NANG maganda. = Let’s arrange the flowers beautifully/nicely.
 
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Author Photo Tagamanila Rating: 0
May 14 2019, 11:48pm CST ~ 2 mos., 2 days ago. 
@banyaga02
 
>> 5. I think sino-sino and sinisino are not the same though they
>>both have the same root word SINO.
 
You are right, they are not the same, but they use the same root word. “Sino-sino/Sinu-sino” is a noun. “Sinisino” is a verb, the infinitive is “sinuhin” (to consider or treat somebody as special - may be related to the meaning of "who's who").
 
>>Sino - question marker for singular
>>Sino ang kaibigan mo?
 
>>Sino-sino - question marker for plural
>>Sino-sino ang mga kaibigan mo?
 
Actually, “sino-sino” is more often written as “sinu-sino”.
 
When some question words, e.g., sino, ano, alin, saan, are repeated they simply give it a plural meaning.
 
Sino ang kaibigan mo? = Who is your friend?
Sinu-sino ang mga kaibigan mo? = Who are your friends?
 
Ano ang gusto mo? = What do you like?
Anu-ano ang mga gusto mo? = What are the things you like?
 
>>But could also function as a noun,
- Yes, as I said earlier “sino-sino” means “unnamed/unknown persons”
 
>>Kung SINO-SINO lang ang pinapapasok mo sa bahay.
= You just bring ANYBODY (unnamed/unknown persons) into our home.
 
***
>>Sinisino/sisinuhin - to spare no one ( this is the English translation
>>I found online)
- No, that is not the correct translation.
 
Walang sasantuhin, walang sisinuhin - This whole thing is the one that may be interpreted as “to spare no one” if the context by which it was said would allow it. Literally, it means “(I will consider) no one as my saint, no one as somebody special”. = “I will not be beholden to anyone” or possibly, “I will spare no one”.
 
>>Enrile: Ako, wala akong sinisino ngayon. Ang pinagtatanggol
>>ko ang bayan.
= I, I don’t consider anyone as somebody special these days. It is the country that I will defend.
 
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Author Photo banyaga02 Rating: 0
May 18 2019, 8:09am CST ~ 1 mo., 29 days ago. 
@Tagamanila
 
Thank you very much. I'm learning a lot from our discussion. English is not my native language but I would like to give my opinion/thoughts as a Tagalog learner.
 
1. The type of stress used and where the stress is placed can make a world of difference in meaning.
 
Yes, I agree. But the use of accent mark in Tagalog word is not always uniform.
 
Here are some exceptions to that rule:
 
panginóon - panginoón (noun)
 
>> first word (panginóon) - the accent mark is written on the third vowel, but on the second word (panginoón) the accent mark is written on the fourth or last vowel.
 
-Did the accent mark placement change the lexical category of the word panginoon? No
- Did it change the meaning of the word? No
 
Here are the other examples showing that changes in stress placement and adding another accent mark do not really change the meaning of some Tagalog words.
 
dáan - daán
kalúsúgan - kalusugán
kaloóban - kaloobán
mágasin - magasín
mákina - mákiná
título - títuló
prínsipe - prínsipé
múndo - mundó
 
>> Sometimes, in written Tagalog word, the accent mark is placed on the last syllable of the first word, but the actual stress in conversation is transferred to the last vowel of the second word.
 
Example:
 
ibá pa (written)
iba pá (spoken)
 
isá pa (written)
isa pá (spoken)
 
anó pa (written)
ano pá (spoken)
 
malakí na (written)
malaki ná (spoken)
 
>> Correct stress and accentuation are very important in learning Tagalog especially for foreigners, but the problem is that, most of the online dictionaries for Tagalog language do not use accent mark or even audio for the pronunciation (except the dictionary in this website and Tagalog-English dictionary by Leo James English). Tagalog people do not use accent mark when writing the words that's why I rely on the lexical category if two or more words have the same spelling.
 
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2. Do not be misled to thinking that English grammar and Filipino grammar are the same.
 
>> I am aware of this. However, ma-adjective playing a double role (as an adjective and an adverb) is something I don't consider a unique characteristic of Tagalog grammar. You can also find this characteristic in other languages like Spanish and English. This is my reason why I used "maaga" and "early" in my example, to show that even English is a germanic language and Tagalog- a malayo polynesian, they still share a few similarities, like an adjective playing double role without having to make any changes to their spellings. And "early" is not the only example in English. There are many examples of English adjectives that use the same words as the adverbs.
 
In Spanish, the example I can give you is the word "menos" which can act as an adjective and an adverb:
 
Example:
 
Si comes MENOS, bajarás de peso. (adverb)
-menos modifying the verb "comer."
 
Tienes MENOS credibilidad que un político (adjective)
-menos modifying the noun "credibilidad."
 
But this doesn't mean that the grammar of all these three languages are the same.
 
3. The explanations we give here are intended for native English speakers who are trying to learn Filipino. We, therefore, have to relate the Filipino words/phrases/sentences/grammar to their equivalents in English for them to be understood.
 
>> Ok, I understand.
 
4. Gigising ako nang maaga bukas para makagawa ako nito. = I will wake up early tomorrow so that I can make something like this. - “So that” there not an auxiliary verb but a conjunction that links the dependent clause to the independent clause that has a normal verb.
 
>> Yes, para is a conjunction.
 
5. I looked it up in a dictionary and it is pronounced as “sanâ”. We are talking about “sana” (I hope; hopefully).
 
>> Sorry, I couldn't find any online dictionary that has an entry for sana functioning as an adjective with accent marker. That's why I didn't know that it has a circumflex accent mark on the last vowel.
 
6. A modifier of a noun is an adjective while a modifier of a verb is an adverb.
 
>> What is confusing to me is the word "baka". In Tagalog dictionary, it is categorised as adverb. If it is an adverb why it can't act as a modifier in the sentence,
"Baka makagawa ako nito" - why it can't modify "makagawa"?
 
7. Actually, “sino-sino” is more often written as “sinu-sino”.
>> Yes, but Commission on Filipino Language issued a new rule for Tagalog orthography.
 
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8. Here's the translation I was talking about in my last post.
 
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