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How to Conjugate Filipino -IN Verbs : Cheat Sheet

-IN Verb Conjugation:

-IN verbs may be the most difficult verbs for Filipino language students to conjugate.
The page below will guide you through conjugating these verbs, and list the -IN verb irregularities you may encounter.

When you get the hang of it, you can practice these conjugations until they become second nature using our -IN Verb Flash Cards.
These flash cards include a huge list of the most commonly used -IN verbs for you to study.


Summary: Steps to Conjugate Regular -IN Verbs

Infinitive:
Add "-in" to the end of the root.
If the last letter of the root is a vowel and that vowel does not have a glottal stop, use "-hin" instead of "-in".
Completed (Past):
Add an "-in-" infix to the middle of the root (see below for examples).
Uncompleted (Present):
Add an "-in-" infix to the middle of the root with a repeating first syllable of the root.
Contemplated (Future):
Repeat the first syllable of the root.
Then add "-in" to the end of the root in the same way as was done for the Infinitive.

Formula:

Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):

Example Root: kain

Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):

Example Root: tanggáp

Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):

Example Root: tahî

* note: even though the "tahi" root ends in a vowel, "tahi" has a glottal stop on the final vowel, so the suffix continues to be "-in".
Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):

Example Root: basa

* note: this root ends in a vowel that doesn't have a glottal stop, so the "-in" suffix becomes "-hin".
Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):

Example Root: kanselá

* note: this root ends in a vowel that doesn't have a glottal stop, so the "-in" suffix becomes "-hin".
Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):


Conjugating -IN Verbs for Roots Beginning with a Vowel

For roots beginning with a vowel, the "-in-" infix switches to an "in-" prefix in the Completed (Past) and Uncompleted (Present) forms.
Infinitive and Contemplated (Future) conjugation does not change.

Formula:

Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):
Infinitive:
root + in

Example Root: alís

Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):

Example Root: ulít

Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):


Conjugating -IN Verbs for Roots Beginning with "L", "Y" or "R"

Roots beginning with these letters are conjugated differently to make pronunciation easier.
The "-in-" infix switches to a "ni-" prefix in the Completed (Past) and Uncompleted (Present) forms.
Infinitive and Contemplated (Future) conjugation does not change.
There are many roots beginning with "L" where this conjugation applies. Roots beginning with "Y" and "R" are less common.

Formula:

Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):
Infinitive:
root + in

Example Root: linis

Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):

Example Root: lu

* note: the final "o" vowel in the root changes to a "u" here. This "o" to "u" switch happens frequently in the Filipino language.
Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):

Example Root: yakap

Infinitive:
Completed (Past):
Uncompleted (Present):
Contemplated (Future):


Irregular -IN Verbs:

There aren't many irregular -IN verbs, however the ones that do exist are used frequently in everyday language. It may be helpful to note that the irregularities only show up in the Infinitive and Future conjugations.

List of Major Irregular -IN Verbs:
The verbs listed below cover the vast majority (by frequency of use) of all commonly used irregular Filipino -IN verbs:

Root: dala :: dalhín, dinalá, dinádalá, dádalhín
*Irregular Note: Expected "dalahin" is shortened to "dalhin".
Root: bili :: bilhín, binilí, biníbilí, bíbilhín
*Irregular Note: Expected "bilihin" is shortened to "bilhin".
Root: gawa :: gawín, ginawâ, ginagawâ, gágawín
*Irregular Note: Expected "gawain" is shortened to "gawin".
Root: hingi :: hingín, hiningî, hinihingî, híhingín
*Irregular Note: Expected "hingiin" is shortened to "hingin".
Root: kuha :: kunin, kinuha, kinukuha, kukunin
*Irregular Note: Expected "kuhahin" is shortened to "kunin".
Root: kilala :: kilalanin, kinilala, kiníkilala, kíkilalanin
*Irregular Note: Expected "kilalahin" in changed to "kilalanin".
Root: kaya :: kayanin, kinaya, kinakaya, kakayanin
*Irregular Note: Expected "kayahin" in changed to "kayanin".
Root: alala :: alalahanin, inalala, ináalala, áalalahanin
*Irregular Note: Expected "alalahin" in changed to "alalahanin".
Root: sunod :: sundín, sinunód, sinúsunód, súsundín
*Irregular Note: Expected "sunodin" in shortened to "sundin".